Noise and children

85 decibel headphones aren’t safe for children

Photo credit: Leonid Mamchenkov licensed under CC BY 2.0

by Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

Many headphones are advertised as safe for children’s hearing, using the occupationally derived 85 decibel (dB) standard as the volume limit without giving an exposure time.

When I contacted them in December 2015, the U.S. Federal Trade Commission’s Division of Advertising Practices declined to take action about this false advertising. Earlier this year, I learned about the UK Advertising Standards Authority, a quasi-governmental agency serving approximately the same role in England and Wales. I filed the same complaint with ASA, on behalf on The Quiet Coalition to protect children’s auditory health. On October 31, 2018, the ASA issued a ruling that Amazon’s advertising of these headphones as safe for children was indeed false advertising.

A study in the Netherlands earlier this year showed that even in children age 9-11 years, headphone use was associated with an increased rate of auditory disorders.

Parents and grandparents would be well-advised not to allow their children or grandchildren to listen to music or videos using headphones, with or without the 85 dB volume limit.

Dr. Daniel Fink is a leading noise activist based in the Los Angeles area. He is the founding chair of The Quiet Coalition, an organization of science, health, and legal professionals concerned about the impacts of noise on health, environment, learning, productivity, and quality of life in America. Dr Fink also is the interim chair of Quiet Communities’ Health Advisory Council, and he served on the board of the American Tinnitus Association from 2015-2018.

Headphones for kids: What you should know

Photo credit: ExpectGrain licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

by Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

This post at SoundGuys discusses choosing headphones for kids. The author discusses a variety of considerations, including many that lead me to my opinion about headphones for kids:

Headphone use should be limited to those old enough to understand the dangers of hearing loss. Giving a younger child a pair of headphones–volume limited or not–is like giving a toddler a beer or a 9-year-old a pack of cigarettes. No one does that.

It takes years to decades of noise exposure to produce hearing loss as measured by standard audiometric techniques, but the reports of hearing loss at very early ages associated with headphone use have already begun to appear. A Dutch study in June 2018 reported increased hearing loss another auditory problems in children as young as 9 to 11, compared to those who didn’t use headphones to listen to personal music devices.

I’m not sure exactly when the idea evolved that everyone, including toddlers as young as 3, needs to entertained by audio or visual material for almost every waking hour, but I can guarantee that generations of children were raised to adulthood quite successfully without these devices. Perhaps headphone use should be regulated like driving, smoking, or drinking, each of which has an age limit at which the behavior is allowed. In the U.S., the age requirement for driving varies from 15 or so to 18 depending on the state, 18 for smoking, and 21 years old for drinking.  Laws are different in Europe and Asia, but to my knowledge there are no laws or regulations restricting headphone use or personal music device use anywhere in the world.

In the old days–whenever that was, but certainly up to a decade or two ago–children either entertained themselves by playing with blocks or toys or dolls, or were entertained by friends, parents, and others. As children got older, they entertained themselves with coloring books, and then by reading. At a meal or waiting in a line or when traveling, parents and children interacted, whether it was the parent making up a story for the toddler, or the slightly older child telling the parent or grandparent a story, or looking at and talking about what was outside the window of the car, bus, train, or airplane. Or people read books. Now I see families sitting in a restaurant with each person wearing earbuds, looking at a smart phone or listening to some content on it, instead of interacting with each other.

This can’t be good for personal and social development. It can’t be good for developing ties among family members and others. And I can guarantee that it is not good for hearing–headphone use in children will cause hearing loss in adults.

Dr. Daniel Fink is a leading noise activist based in the Los Angeles area. He is the founding chair of The Quiet Coalition, an organization of science, health, and legal professionals concerned about the impacts of noise on health, environment, learning, productivity, and quality of life in America. Dr Fink also is the interim chair of Quiet Communities’ Health Advisory Council, and he served on the board of the American Tinnitus Association from 2015-2018.

How to protect your child’s hearing

Photo credit: Fimb licensed under CC BY 2.0

by Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

This brief article from U.S. News offers a few basic tips to protect a child’s hearing.

The various health authorities–from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Family Physicians–offer little guidance for parents but not much. The CDC offers some resources, but I can’t find anything specifically about noise and hearing loss in children on the American Academy of Pediatrics or American Academy of Family Physicians online. This stands in dramatic contrast to the CDC’s sound advice offered about sun exposure, which is mirrored by offerings from the AAP and AAFP.

My advice to parents on protecting their child’s hearing is simple: if it sounds too loud, it IS too loud. Avoid the noise (e.g., don’t take a child to a rock concert or music festival), wear hearing protection (a less desirable choice in my opinion because it teaches the child that risky behaviors are acceptable), or leave if the noise is louder and expected. Parents (and grandparents) will be protecting their own precious hearing, too.

Dr. Daniel Fink is a leading noise activist based in the Los Angeles area. He is the founding chair of The Quiet Coalition, an organization of science, health, and legal professionals concerned about the impacts of noise on health, environment, learning, productivity, and quality of life in America. Dr Fink also is the interim chair of Quiet Communities’ Health Advisory Council, and he served on the board of the American Tinnitus Association from 2015-2018.

Hospital noise reduces children’s sleep time

Photo credit: rawpixel.com from Pexels

by Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

This report discusses a study showing that hospital noise reduces children’s sleep time.

Noise disrupting sleep isn’t just a problem for children in the hospital. Humans can’t close our ears. Even if it doesn’t waken us, noise in the 35 decibel range can disrupt EEG patterns. And these disruptions–called microarousals–have the same impact on heart rate and stress hormone levels as a noise loud enough to waken someone from a deep sleep.

Both in the hospital and in our homes, a quiet bedroom helps us sleep, and that’s important for health and function.

Dr. Daniel Fink is a leading noise activist based in the Los Angeles area. He is the founding chair of The Quiet Coalition, an organization of science, health, and legal professionals concerned about the impacts of noise on health, environment, learning, productivity, and quality of life in America. Dr Fink also is the interim chair of Quiet Communities’ Health Advisory Council, and he served on the board of the American Tinnitus Association from 2015-2018.

 

 

The best ear protection for babies and toddlers

Photo credit: Fimb licensed under CC BY 2.0

by Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

As a newly minted grandfather, I worry even more about the world and the future, and what it will hold for our grandson and for all children and grandchildren, especially about keeping him safe and healthy. The Centers for Disease Control and the American Academy of Pediatrics have lots of advice about avoiding sun exposure, but little to nothing about avoiding noise exposure.

This report reviews four earmuff-style hearing protective devices–that’s the correct term, not headphones–that are good for babies and toddlers.

A few quibbles. The article doesn’t state how these were evaluated. NIOSH and OSHA evaluate hearing protective devices and assign a Noise Reduction Rating-NRR, but this evaluation appears to be the opinion of one audiologist.

And while I’m glad that the industrial-strength 85 decibel sound exposure level wasn’t mentioned as the noise level at which hearing damage occurs, the 70 decibel standard cited may be too low. Sound above 70 decibels for short time periods probably won’t cause hearing loss. It’s a time-weighted average sound exposure of 70 decibels for the whole day that prevents noise-induced hearing loss. Noise dose calculators like this one can help one understand what constitutes safe noise exposures.

More information about noise and children’s hearing is provided by the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery.

Parents and grandparents should remember that to protect children’s hearing, if it sounds too loud, it IS too loud.

Common recreational activities, including using certain toys, birthday and other parties with amplified music, sports events, air shows, car races, and children’s action movies, are often dangerously loud.

And headphones should probably not be used by children for personal music players or digital devices, with or without an 85 decibel volume limit.

Dr. Daniel Fink is a leading noise activist based in the Los Angeles area. He is the founding chair of The Quiet Coalition, an organization of science, health, and legal professionals concerned about the impacts of noise on health, environment, learning, productivity, and quality of life in America. Dr Fink also is the interim chair of Quiet Communities’ Health Advisory Council, and he served on the board of the American Tinnitus Association from 2015-2018.

Noise is bad for children

by Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

One of the nice things about doing a Google search is the serendipity of coming across something else.

I recently saw a mention of a World Health Organization statement that children shouldn’t be exposed to noise above 120 decibels, so I began searching for the source of that statement. While searching, I found this 2009 WHO PowerPoint presentation (pdf) about the adverse health effect of noise on children–not just hearing loss, but hypertension, increases in stress hormone levels, and difficulties learning, among a multitude of other adverse effects. Eventually, I found the 120 decibel recommendation in the WHO 1999 Community Noise Guidelines monograph.

It’s distressing that this information clearly has been known for so long–the pediatric noise hazards for almost a decade, the Community Noise Guidelines for almost two decades—and we still haven’t done anything to protect our children from noise.

With our first grandchild just born, I will renew my efforts to protect children and all people from the dangers of noise. I hope he grows up in a quieter world.

Dr. Daniel Fink is a leading noise activist based in the Los Angeles area. He is the founding chair of The Quiet Coalition, an organization of science, health, and legal professionals concerned about the impacts of noise on health, environment, learning, productivity, and quality of life in America. Dr Fink also is the interim chair of Quiet Communities’s Health Advisory Council, and he served on the board of the American Tinnitus Association from 2015-2018.

More study needed on hearing loss among preschool teachers

by Arline L. Bronzaft, Ph.D., Board of Directors, GrowNYC, and Co-founder, The Quiet Coalition

As an educator, psychologist and researcher on the effects of noise on children’s learning, I have been long interested in the sounds to which children and teachers are exposed to in the classroom. While the literature is indeed plentiful on the dangers of loud sounds and noise to the hearing of young children, as well as to the impacts of noise to their cognition and learning abilities, and my own writings have noted that noise in the classroom disrupts teaching, little has been said about the impacts of loud sounds and noise to which teachers of young children are exposed.

Now we have this study from Sweden that has found hearing-related problems in preschool women teachers that is considerably higher than would be expected. I am looking forward to reading the published study of this paper to learn more about the methodology and specific findings but still, based on this report, would suggest that there be additional studies in other countries, including the U.S. If indeed these findings hold up, then the design of schools with a special emphasis on the acoustics must be given greater thought as the article suggests.

And better school design would also benefit the students. Groups of children tend to be noisy but even here the sound levels can be lessened with appropriate interventions and children can also be taught the importance of being quieter in reading sessions and at times when they read or draw on their own at their desks.

Dr. Arline Bronzaft is a researcher, writer, and consultant on the adverse effects of noise on mental and physical health. She is co-author of “Why Noise Matters,” author of “Listen to the Raindrops” (children’s book illustrated by Steven Parton), and has written extensively about noise in books, encyclopedias, academic journals, and the popular press.  In addition, she is a Professor Emerita of the City University of New York and Board member of GrowNYC.

Hearing-related problems are common among preschool teachers

Photo credit: woodleywonderworks licensed under CC BY 2.0

by Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

Anyone who has seen a bunch of schoolchildren, in a park or a museum or a zoo–perhaps anywhere other than a library–knows that they can be noisy. And noise exposure causes hearing problems.

This report from Sweden discusses the high prevalence of hearing-related problems among preschool teachers there, including hearing loss, difficulty understanding speech, and sensitivity to noise.

The findings have to be replicated in other countries–maybe Swedish kids are noisier than others?–but the report shows that noise is a ubiquitous occupational hazard, even for preschool teachers.

Dr. Daniel Fink is a leading noise activist based in the Los Angeles area. He is the founding chair of The Quiet Coalition, an organization of science, health, and legal professionals concerned about the impacts of noise on health, environment, learning, productivity, and quality of life in America. Dr Fink also is the interim chair of Quiet Communities’s Health Advisory Council, and he served on the board of the American Tinnitus Association from 2015-2018.

Loud music listened to on headphones is causing hearing loss in children

Photo credit: Gordon licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

by Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

My main noise issue is restaurant noise, but I have learned about other noise issues, too. When I figured out that the oft-cited 85 decibel standard is an occupational noise exposure standard, and not a safe noise exposure standard for the public, I sent emails and letters to the audiologists quoted in media reports. When I realized that 85 decibels was used as a safe volume limit for headphones marketed for toddlers as young as 3 years, I called this to the attention of pediatricians, the Federal Trade Commission, the Consumer Product Safety Commission, and the Centers for Disease Control. My efforts, sadly, have thus far been unsuccessful.

My worries were based on theoretical concerns. There was no way that loud noise without a time exposure limit could be safe for children. Now this report documents that the hearing loss I was worried about isn’t a theoretical concern any more. Namely, the news article writes about a study conducted by Erasmus Medical Centre in Holland, in which scientists “studied more than 5,000 children aged nine to 11-years-old over three years, found one in seven of the youngsters had suffered some hearing loss.”

The study is preliminary. The hearing tests were done as part of a study of normal child development in Rotterdam, but not specifically to determine whether personal music player use caused hearing loss. More than 5,000 children were enrolled in the study, but complete hearing tests were available for only about 3,000, and personal music player use was assessed by parental report. Despite these limitations, the study found that 14% of the children, now just under 11 years old, had some type of hearing impairment.

That said, one must ask what is causing this early onset hearing loss. The researchers believe the cause may be children’s use of headphones to listen to portable music players.

Maybe this will spur regulatory authorities into action. At the very least, parents and grandparents can take these headphones away from their little darlings, and give them instead the gift of continued good hearing.

The problem with headphones isn’t just hearing loss. As a parent and soon to be grandparent, I know that talking with children and listening to what they say–almost from the time they are born–is one of the most important ways to teach them words and language, to establish a relationship with them, and to educate them about the world. Giving the child a personal music player or video player and headphones can occupy the child for hours–it’s certainly easier than carrying books and reading them to the child, or giving the child a paper and crayons, or playing with dolls or trucks or Legos–and it allows the parent to watch or listen to his or her own cellphone or personal electronic device, but it probably isn’t the best thing for the child, either.

Dr. Daniel Fink is a leading noise activist based in the Los Angeles area. He is the founding chair of The Quiet Coalition, an organization of science, health, and legal professionals concerned about the impacts of noise on health, environment, learning, productivity, and quality of life in America. Dr Fink also is the interim chair of Quiet Communities’s Health Advisory Council, and he served on the board of the American Tinnitus Association board from 2015-2018.

 

How a YouTube-inspired prank ruined a young girl’s life

 

photo credit: Edvvc licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

Laurie Redmond writes about how a stupid prank by YouTube “trickster” Rick Lax inspired a miscreant to copy a video the aptly named Lax posted of his “prankster pal,” Ryan Hamilton, blasting his girlfriend with an air horn to get her to put down her phone.  Redmond notes that the video “entitled ‘How to get your girlfriend to put her phone down,’ has an astounding 246m views.” Sadly, one of the viewers was her 12-year old daughter Cindy’s friend’s ex-stepfather, who decided to play the prank on Cindy.

But after this miscreant played his prank, things fell apart for Cindy who eventually was diagnosed with “hyperacusis, or noise-induced pain.” As a result of this “prank,” Cindy has a “burning pain in her ears all the time…[and] [w]ith all noise louder than ordinary conversation, she feels like she is being stabbed in the ear. Her ears ring.”

Redmond has since learned that another “YouTube prankster, an F-list celebrity named Jake Paul, was sued for wrecking someone’s ears with an air horn.”  And yet the air horn “prank” videos remain on YouTube and Facebook, even though they “recently removed Tide Pod challenge videos so as not to encourage dangerous stunts.” Redmond asks what it will take to have these dangerously stupid and vile videos off of social media.  We would suggest litigation might do the trick, while recognizing how terrible things are when the only option is litigation.