Silencity

The Truth About Noise

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Judge denies NYPD’s motion to dismiss sound cannon lawsuit

Photo credit: Peter Bergin licensed under CC BY-SA 2.5

Mark Chiusano, AMNewYork, writes about the New York Police Department’s use of long range acoustic devices on people who were protesting against “the non-indictment of Daniel Pantaleo, the police officer involved in the death of Eric Garner on Staten Island.” One protester, Anika Edrei, ran after hearing a crash that sounded like a bottle shattering near the crowd, but then Edrei heard “a different sound,” one which sounded like a very loud car alarm. How loud? “Another listener described it as the loudest noise he’d ever heard.”

Edrei saw two police officers carrying “a bulky appliance,” which was a long range acoustic device (LRAD). LRADS can be used as a loudspeaker, but they also generate “sharper, high decibel “alert” or “deterrent” tones intended to control a crowd.” Chiusano reports that the police’s use of the sharper, high decibel tone on the crowd was “one of the first times the police reportedly used the tone.” Edrei and others claim that they suffered injuries due to the exposure to that tone.

LRADs are military devices that were developed after the 2000 bombing of the U.S.S. Cole in Yemen, but Chiusano writes that the devices “made their way to some police departments, too.” The NYPD purchased two LRADs before the 2004 Republican National Convention.

Edrei and others at the protest have sued the NYPD for injuries they claimed to have sustained from exposure to the LRADs, asserting that after exposure they developed migraines, sinus pain, dizziness, facial pressure, and ringing in their ears. Chiusano notes that:

[I]nternal NYPD documents available so far appear to lend weight to the plaintiffs’ claims. A 2010 document from the department’s Disorder Control Unit says the device’s alternate function can emit sounds at higher levels “than are considered safe to human ears. In this dangerous range (above 120 decibels), the device can cause damage to someone’s hearing and may be painful.

Chiusano reports that the judge “appeared convinced of the possibility of danger, finding a ‘cognizable claim’… that use of the LRAD had constituted excessive force.” As a result, the federal lawsuit will continue, while “the conclusion of a separate lawsuit in June requires the police, in part, to release certain documents about current LRAD training and usage procedures.”

It is disgraceful that a U.S. police department would use a device that can permanently injure its victims on citizens engaging in their First Amendment right to protest.

Noise exposure directly damages rat brains. What does it do to humans?

Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

The evidence keeps mounting, almost on a daily basis, that noise is a health and public health hazard. Just last month, an article by researchers in Italy found that noise exposure directly damaged rat brains, producing changes in DNA, neurotransmitters, and even morphological changes. (For those who might be skeptical of this report, there is an existing body of research on the effects of noise on the brain. I don’t understand the details of the newer scientific studies, and I’m always cautious because studies have shown that positive results get reported more frequently than negative results, but taken together with the new report, there is a large amount of research pointing to a direct effect of noise on the brain.)

The Italian study exposed rates to noise of 100 decibels for 12 hours. That level exceeds exposure levels for most humans–certainly for a half-day period–but probably not cumulatively for many who attend clubs, rock concerts, or have noisy hobbies such as woodworking or motorcycle riding.

Humans and rats are genetically very similar–experts argue about whether the rat and human genomes are 97% or 99% similar, and about how to measure this similarity–but regardless of the exact percentage, we’re not talking about applying data from a roundworm to humans. The basic similarities are there in organ and cellular biochemistry, structure, and function. So it’s very likely that noise is also a direct toxin to the human brain, with similar genetic, neurotransmitter, and morphological changes, and most likely at lower noise exposure levels, too.

So what can we do? The solution is simple: avoid loud noise exposure, and wear hearing protection if you can’t.

And one last thing–encourage legislators, regulators, and public health authorities to do more to protect us from exposure to unnecessary noise.

Dr. Daniel Fink is a leading noise activist based in the Los Angeles area. He serves on the board of the American Tinnitus Association, is the interim chair of Quiet Communities’s Health Advisory Council, and is the founding chair of The Quiet Coalition, an organization of science, health, and legal professionals concerned about the impacts of noise on health, environment, learning, productivity, and quality of life in America.

“Baby Driver” highlights the problems of tinnitus

Photo credit: leadfoot licensed under CC BY 2.0

Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

I am not a moviegoer although my wife would say I am a movie critic, but I can’t comment on the new movie “Baby Driver” because I haven’t seen it. What I can say, based on movie reviews and this online article, is that the lead character has tinnitus from head trauma in a motor vehicle crash, and he plays music constantly to mask it.

Although there are many causes of tinnitus, the most common cause is noise, with a strong correlation between noise-induced hearing loss and tinnitus. Most people with tinnitus have at least some hearing loss, and half of people with hearing loss have tinnitus.

So, movie conventions aside, what’s the best way to avoid developing tinnitus? It’s simple–avoid loud noise and wear hearing protection if you can’t.

Dr. Daniel Fink is a leading noise activist based in the Los Angeles area. He serves on the board of the American Tinnitus Association, is the interim chair of Quiet Communities’s Health Advisory Council, and is the founding chair of The Quiet Coalition, an organization of science, health, and legal professionals concerned about the impacts of noise on health, environment, learning, productivity, and quality of life in America.

 

The importance of sound in understanding our past

 

Photo credit: Martin Belam licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

Science Daily reports that many attempts have been made “to explain how past people experienced their wider world,” but those attempts have primarily “focused on sight at the expense of sound.” But things are changing, as “researchers from the University at Albany and the University at Buffalo have developed a tool that puts sound back into the ancient landscape.” The researchers “use[d] GIS technology to advance a largely theoretical discussion into a modeled sensory experience to explore how people may have heard their surroundings throughout an entire archaeological landscape, or soundscape.”

Science Daily writes that the “attempt to infuse character into the material world and incorporate the relationship between people and their surroundings is part of what’s called phenomenology.” Says Kristy Primeau, an archaeologist, PhD candidate, and employee at the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation:

From a phenomenological perspective, the difference between a space and a place is critical. People don’t live in a vacuum and we have to look at all aspects of the lived experience.

Do click the link above to read the entire piece. It’s a fascinating topic and well worth your time.

Hearing Restoration: A Step Closer?

Photo credit: Ronna Hertzano et al. licensed under CC BY 2.5

By Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

A recent report that scientists in Boston have caused human hair cells to regrow in the laboratory is exciting news, holding out the promise of hearing restoration in the future.

But it is important to remember two facts:

1. Development and then approval of this technology for human use are likely to be years if not decades in the future, and the technology will most likely be very expensive.

2. Noise-induced hearing loss is 100% preventable and prevention is either free or inexpensive: avoid loud noise exposure and use hearing protection (ear plugs or ear muffs) if one can’t.

Dr. Daniel Fink is a leading noise activist based in the Los Angeles area. He serves on the board of the American Tinnitus Association, is the interim chair of Quiet Communities’s Health Advisory Council, and is the founding chair of The Quiet Coalition, an organization of science, health, and legal professionals concerned about the impacts of noise on health, environment, learning, productivity, and quality of life in America.

 

Is eating out bad for your ears?

By Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

We all know from personal experience that restaurants are too loud. In this piece in The Washington Post, Gail Richard, the president of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, writes that noise levels in restaurants are loud enough to damage one’s hearing. Specifically, Richard states that “[c]onsistently listening to noise levels above 70 decibels can cause hearing loss over time,” noting that “it is not unusual for restaurant reviewers who regularly list restaurant noise in their reviews to find levels above 70 and even 80 decibels.”

The Quiet Coalition has covered a number of reports about restaurant noise so this information is nothing new, but this opinion piece is a nice summary.

The only thing I disagree with is Richard’s suggestion that restaurants could provide quiet zones for customers with hearing loss or those who prefer less noisy spaces. The idea of “separate but equal” spaces embodied in quiet zones, quiet rooms, or even a request for a quiet table runs counter to the legal requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), which requires that places of public accommodation offer those with disabilities full and equal enjoyment. Someone with complete hearing loss in one ear would appear to meet the ADA definition of having a disability.

Simply put, we shouldn’t have to ask for a quiet table or a quiet room. All restaurants should be quiet enough to allow all customers to converse.

Dr. Daniel Fink is a leading noise activist based in the Los Angeles area. He serves on the board of the American Tinnitus Association, is the interim chair of Quiet Communities’s Health Advisory Council, and is the founding chair of The Quiet Coalition, an organization of science, health, and legal professionals concerned about the impacts of noise on health, environment, learning, productivity, and quality of life in America.

There goes his playwriting career

 

Lincoln Tunnel exit into NYC | Photo credit: Jim.henderson

Man sues landlord because apartment is too loud. Ross Toback, The N.Y. Post (sigh), writes that a “retired New Mexico state senator who came to the Big Apple to pursue a career as a playwright is suing his Manhattan building manager, saying his Hell’s Kitchen apartment is just too noisy.” Why so noisy? Because former New Mexico state senator Joseph Carraro’s “high-rise rental faces West 42nd Street at 11th Avenue and also happens to overlook the noisy Lincoln Tunnel entrance.” Carraro was supposed to have an apartment in a marginally better location within the building, but claims building management used the ol’ bait-n-switch to get him to agree to take the apartment from hell. “Being from New Mexico their selling point was for me to look at the river,” he said.

Between the fire trucks and police sirens and then the construction noise during the day, Carraro claims the “noise sent him to the ER where he was diagnosed with a ‘breakdown of body function because of extreme exhaustion.'”

Lies, deception, dashed dreams, and a retired state senator from New Mexico….we smell a Broadway hit!

 

Why do humans suffer hearing loss from noise?

Image is in the public domain in the U.S.

By Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

Why do humans suffer hearing loss from noise? The cellular, sub-cellular, and even molecular reasons for how noise damages the auditory system are known, but why?

In a fascinating article in The Hearing Journal, evolutionary biologist William Shofner, PhD, notes that humans and our animal forebears evolved in a largely quiet environment. Exquisitely acute hearing was important for finding prey or avoiding threats, but resistance to noise damage in the auditory system conferred no selective advantage.

Our world only started getting noisy as cities evolved, and especially since the Industrial Revolution. That is, our ears haven’t evolved to handle the noise, hence the epidemic of noise-induced hearing loss reported by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Shofner’s last paragraph says it all:

Why didn’t evolution make the ear more noise-resistant? Again, evolution does not proceed with purpose. Simply stated, the human ear did not evolve under conditions of high sound levels. Any genetic mutation that might have led to a noise-resistant ear was likely not selected because it did not provide any benefit for survival and reproductive success in the pre-historic acoustic environment of early mammals. Natural selection is an exceedingly slow process that occurs over many generations, and the susceptibility of the human ear to noise-induced damage shows how natural selection is unable to keep up with rapid changes in an organism’s environment (Evol Applications. 2008). Technology has produced an acoustic environment that has changed much faster than the sluggish pace of human evolution. This evolutionary explanation of why the human ear is so susceptible to damage at highly intense noise levels provides a valuable perspective that audiologists can offer patients to prevent NIHL.

Dr. Daniel Fink is a leading noise activist based in the Los Angeles area. He serves on the board of the American Tinnitus Association, is the interim chair of Quiet Communities’s Health Advisory Council, and is the founding chair of The Quiet Coalition, an organization of science, health, and legal professionals concerned about the impacts of noise on health, environment, learning, productivity, and quality of life in America.

Quiet motorcycles? Tell your neighbor to buy one of these…

Photo credit: Jan Ainali licensed under CC BY 3.0

By David Sykes, Vice Chair, and Jamie Banks, Program Director, The Quiet Coalition

You may be thinking, “quiet motorcycles…how is that possible?” In fact, they already exist—but you might have trouble getting a Harley-riding neighbor to embrace them. For many bikers, noise equals power. But in the case of electric motorcycles there is reason to believe that quiet is powerful too!

Lithium ion battery-powered motorcycles are gaining favor–Consumer Reports is impressed with them. Furthermore, the Department of Defense’s Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has been working on camo-painted, “stealth” hybrid gas/electric off-road motorbikes.

Motorcycle noise is a serious problem—especially for people who suffer from auditory disorders like partial hearing loss, tinnitus, hyperacusis, and misophonia–for whom the racket from motorcycles can be excruciatingly painful. This may be bikers themselves or people who live in neighborhoods that are regularly exposed to this type of noise. Several years ago, the U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) convened a meeting about the problem of motorcycle noise and issued a report in 2014, though it seems to have fallen on deaf ears outside the NAE.

The noise has become such a problem in so many communities that even Harley-Davidson’s CEO has spoken out about Hog riders who remove their factory mufflers and install ‘straight pipes.’ Officially, the company doesn’t approve of owners tampering with the factory-installed mufflers, but after-market manufacturers are all-too-willing to meet consumer demand for more noise. The best news is that Harley-Davidson is developing an electric-powered motorcycle too.

Motorcycle noise may be a problem that regulation simply cannot fix. Given the current situation, it is unlikely the Environmental Protection Agency will be able to do anything about it. Instead, The Quiet Coalition (TQC) recommends framing motorcycle noise as a public health issue and encouraging a positive, technology-centered approach by businesses:

  • Become familiar with the large body of scientific literature indicating that loud noise is a public health problem. Authorities, including the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, publicize this information on their websites. Like tobacco smoke a generation ago, it will be necessary to engage public health officials before the motorcycle noise be addressed.
  • Urge individuals and groups that oppose motorcycle noise to encourage businesses to develop quieter, electric-powered alternatives. They are cheaper to operate (solar power is getting cheaper by the minute!) and much easier to maintain or repair (fewer moving parts!).

We believe these two steps are the best, most practical way to get action on this contentious issue and can actually lead to results. For example, The Quiet Coalition’s host, non-profit Quiet Communities, has been helping communities make the quiet transition away from fossil-fuel powered devices (namely landscape maintenance equipment) and towards advanced electric equipment and manual tools and emphasizing the compelling business model for users: the new lithium-ion-powered alternatives are cheaper to operate and maintain, they reduce air pollution, and they operate quietly. For some bikers, adopting technologically advanced, non-polluting, quiet alternatives may be appealing, especially if they have had health and hearing problems related to noisy bikes. It would be the start of a movement.

At TQC, we’re cautiously optimistic.

David Sykes chairs/co-chairs four national professional groups in acoustical science: The Acoustics Research Council, ANSI S12 WG44, The Rothschild Foundation Task Force on Acoustics, and the FGI Acoustics Working Group. He is also a board member of the American Tinnitus Association, co-founder of the Laboratory for Advanced Research in Acoustics (LARA) at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, lead author of “Sound & Vibration 2.0 (2012, Springer-Verlag), and a contributor to “Technology for a Quieter America” (2011, National Academy of Engineering). A graduate of the University of California/Berkeley with graduate degrees from Cornell University, he is a frequent organizer of and speaker at professional conferences in the U.S., Europe, Asia, and the Middle East.

Jamie Banks, PhD, MSc, is the Executive Director of Quiet Communities, Inc.. She is an environmentalist and health care scientist dedicated to promoting clean, healthy, quiet, and sustainable landscape maintenance, construction, and agricultural practices.

Humans are changing the underwater soundscapes

 

Photo credit: AWeith licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

of the world’s oceans. Catherine Rice, Nature World News, reports on how climate change is affecting the world’s oceans. Rice introduces us Kate Stafford, an oceanographer who studies the underwater soundscapes and migratory patterns and geographic variation of marine mammals. Using the Arctic Ocean as an example, Stafford discusses “how climate change is changing the sonic landscape of oceans” and how “human impact on climate could have unknown consequences for marine life which rely on listening to sounds in the ocean for survival.”

Long and short, as sea ice melts it “screeches and cracks and pops and groans, as it collides and rubs when temperature or currents or winds change.” So more melting means more noise. And as the sea ice melts, humans are encouraged “to use bigger ships more frequently” in parts of the Arctic Ocean that previously were not very navigable, which introduces even more loud noise into the soundscape. “Due to warmer waters and less sea ice, Stafford and [other] scientists are seeing other species of whales and mammals moving further north,” which could set up an ugly competition for food.

Rice concludes that “there are still many unanswered questions about the impact of human-induced climate change on the soundscape of the world’s oceans, but it is clear that they are getting noisier.”

Link via @QuietMark.