Tag Archive: hearing loss

Hearing loss a big problem for farmers and ranchers

by Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

This report discusses the problem of occupational hearing loss in farmers and ranchers. You may be confused, thinking farmers and ranchers must surely work in some of the most peaceful workplaces that exist. And that may be true part of the time, but they also use heavy equipment (tractors, harvesters, etc.) for long periods of time. Says Dr. Richard Kopke, M.D., FACS, chief executive officer of the Hough Ear Institute in Oklahoma City, “[e]xposure to tractors, forage harvesters, chain saws, combines, grain dryers, even squealing pigs and guns, can lead to significant hearing loss.”

Dr. Kopke offers advice to farmers and ranchers on how to avoid hearing loss, including the same point I always make: if you have to raise your voice to be heard, the ambient noise is above 75 A-weighted decibels and hearing loss is occurring.

But it’s not just farmers and ranchers at risk of noise-induced hearing loss. It’s everyone.

Hearing is precious. Speech is the main way humans communicate and relate to one another. As Helen Keller said (paraphrasing), “blindness separates people from things, but deafness separates people from people.”

It’s National Protect Your Hearing Month. Once hearing is lost, the only treatment is a hearing aid (or a cochlear implant for the severely impaired). If it sounds too loud, it IS too loud! Turn down the volume, leave or move away, or insert ear plugs or use ear muff hearing protection.

Dr. Daniel Fink is a leading noise activist based in the Los Angeles area. He serves on the board of the American Tinnitus Association, is the interim chair of Quiet Communities’s Health Advisory Council, and is the founding chair of The Quiet Coalition, an organization of science, health, and legal professionals concerned about the impacts of noise on health, environment, learning, productivity, and quality of life in America.

Havana mystery: Weaponized sound or ‘spooky action at a distance’?

U.S. Embassy in Havana | Photo credit: Escla licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

by David M. Sykes, Vice Chair, The Quiet Coalition

Albert Einstein never accepted quantum physics, proving that geniuses don’t know everything. One phenomenon he couldn’t explain—now known as “quantum entanglement”–he simply dismissed as “spooky action at a distance.” But it has lately (decades after Einstein’s death) been proven.

Something else that’s not understood yet is the odd case of “weaponized sound” that appears to have sickened people at the U.S. embassy in Havana, Cuba. This piece in Wired Magazine, as well as this article in The New York Times, are by far the best so far on this mysterious and unexplained situation.

If you, like we, have been pondering this, wondering if an LRAD was involved or perhaps some secret source of weaponized infrasound or ultrasound, don’t expect a definitive answer just yet. Adam Rogers, the author of the Wired piece, and Carl Zimmer, of The New York Times, dug deeper than most and even talked to some scientists (in the U.S. and Russia) to see what, in anything, anybody knows. The answer is this: it’s still a mystery, but stay tuned because they’re gradually eliminating possibilities. The most probable scenario involves a combination of ototoxic chemical exposure with some form of weaponized sound. Yes, there are many ototoxic chemicals and drugs, that is, chemicals and drugs the exposure to which can destroy your hearing, including several chemotherapy drugs.

Is this kind of lethal combo possible? Probable? Likely?

Whatever it is, it apparently is NOT an LRAD. Yes, it’s true that LRAD’s are being distributed to and used by police forces since 2009, but whatever has been going on in Havana, that’s not the answer. Stay tuned.

In addition to serving as vice chair of the The Quiet Coalition, David Sykes chairs several professional organizations in acoustical science: The Acoustics Research Council, American National Standards Institute Committee S12, Workgroup 44, The Rothschild Foundation Task Force on Acoustics, and the FGI Acoustics Working Group—a partner of the American Hospital Association. He is the lead author of “Sound & Vibration 2.0 (2012, Springer-Verlag), a contributor to the National Academy of Engineering report “Technology for a Quieter America,” and to the US-GSA guidance “Sound Matters”, and co-founded the Laboratory for Advanced Research in Acoustics (LARA) at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. He recently retired from the board of directors of the American Tinnitus Association. A graduate of the University of California/Berkeley with graduate degrees from Cornell University, he is a frequent organizer of and speaker at professional conferences in the U.S., Europe, Asia, and the Middle East.

The wrong answer to the restaurant noise problem

Photo credit: Jeremy Keith licensed under CC BY 2.0

by Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

This report from the United Kingdom discusses expensive new headphones which can help someone understand conversations in a noisy restaurant.

This is the wrong answer to the restaurant noise problem.

Why should someone have to spend £400–about $530 at current exchange rates–just to be able to understand a conversation in a restaurant in London?

The right answer is making restaurants quieter, by reducing background music levels and adding sound-absorbing materials, so everyone can have a conversation without straining to speak or to be heard.

Noisy restaurants are a major disability rights issue for those with hearing loss, tinnitus, and hyperacusis. And it is an important issue for older Americans, many of whom have significant (25-40 decibel) hearing loss.

I will be speaking about the problem of restaurant noise at the December 2017 meeting of the Acoustical Society of America in New Orleans.

Dr. Daniel Fink is a leading noise activist based in the Los Angeles area. He serves on the board of the American Tinnitus Association, is the interim chair of Quiet Communities’s Health Advisory Council, and is the founding chair of The Quiet Coalition, an organization of science, health, and legal professionals concerned about the impacts of noise on health, environment, learning, productivity, and quality of life in America.

Yet another reason to protect your hearing

by Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

October is National Protect Your Hearing Month, and Jane Brody’s column in the September 26, 2017, New York Times science section gives yet another reason to protect your hearing: hearing loss is tied to cognitive decline. In fact, studies are underway to determine if preventing hearing loss or treating hearing loss will prevent cognitive decline, because the correlation between hearing loss and cognitive decline is well established.

I try to lead a healthy life. I never smoked. I walk an hour or more every day. I eat 5-7 servings of fruits and vegetables daily. My BMI is 24.5. I wear a hat and long sleeves to protect me from the California sun. I always use my seat belt when driving or riding in a car. But I knew little about the importance of protecting my hearing.

Unfortunately, my ignorance hurt me. A one-time exposure to loud noise one New Year’s Eve left me with permanent tinnitus and hyperacusis. I started wearing ear plugs at movies and sports events, and dined out rarely because almost all restaurants are painfully noisy for me. Then three years ago, after reading a different piece in the New York Times science section on hyperacusis, I was motivated to become a noise activist and to learn more about preventing auditory damage.

Researchers are working on drugs and other treatments to reverse noise-induced hearing loss, tinnitus, and hyperacusis, but currently the only treatments for hearing loss are hearing aids or, for the most severely affected, cochlear implants. And hearing aids aren’t like eyeglasses or contact lenses for common visual problems. They just don’t work as well as people would like to help them understand speech.

When I learned how bad noise is for the ears, that the only safe noise exposure level to prevent hearing loss is 70 decibels daily average noise exposure, that most Americans are exposed to dangerously high noise levels in everyday life, that many American adults have noise-induced hearing loss because of the excess noise exposure, and that hearing aids don’t work particularly well in helping people with hearing loss understand speech, I realized I had to protect my hearing.

Now I use earplugs at the movies, at sports events, even if I have to go to a noisy restaurant. And if I use a power tool, or even bang in one nail with a hammer, I use ear plugs or ear muff hearing protection. You should, too!

Dr. Daniel Fink is a leading noise activist based in the Los Angeles area. He serves on the board of the American Tinnitus Association, is the interim chair of Quiet Communities’s Health Advisory Council, and is the founding chair of The Quiet Coalition, an organization of science, health, and legal professionals concerned about the impacts of noise on health, environment, learning, productivity, and quality of life in America.

There is nothing inevitable or natural about chronic disease

Photo credit: Robbie Sproule licensed under CC BY 2.0

by Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

This thoughtful piece talks about chronic disease, pointing out that it is not inevitable or natural. The author, Dr. Clayton Dalton, writes that:

[T]raditional cultures across the globe, from hunter-gatherers to pastoralists to horticulturists, have shown little evidence of chronic disease. It’s not because they don’t live long enough – recent analysis has found a common lifespan of up to 78 years among hunter-gatherers, once the bottlenecks of high mortality in infancy and young adulthood are bypassed. We can’t blame genes, since many of these groups appear to be more genetically susceptible to chronic disease than those of European descent.

So what is the reason for the absence of chronic illness among these cultures? “Evidence suggests it is how they live,” Dr. Dalton replies. And what factors do these different cultures share?  Dr. Dalton writes that the “common denominator [is] defined by the absence of modern banes: absence of processed foodstuffsabsence of sedentary lifestyle, and likely absence of chronic stressors.”

Dr. Dalton doesn’t specifically mention noise-induced hearing loss, but that’s another chronic disease that he could have included in his essay.

I spoke about this at the 12th Congress of the International Commission on the Biological Effects of Noise in Zürich in June. Similar to Dr. Dalton’s comments about hypertension and diabetes, I presented information showing that significant hearing loss is probably not part of normal aging, but represents noise-induced hearing loss.

A useful analogy for noise and hearing is sun and the skin. It turns out that skin and subcutaneous tissues sag as we age–that’s normal–but deep wrinkles, age spots, and skin cancers are the result of ultraviolet exposure. Similarly, I’m sure there are changes that occur in our hearing as we age, but profound hearing loss (25-40 decibel decrement in hearing) is most often the result of noise exposure.

In the end, how we live our lives matters. If we want to hear well into old age, we have to work to preserve our hearing all during our lives. How? It’s easy: avoid loud noise or wear ear protection if you can’t.

Dr. Daniel Fink is a leading noise activist based in the Los Angeles area. He serves on the board of the American Tinnitus Association, is the interim chair of Quiet Communities’s Health Advisory Council, and is the founding chair of The Quiet Coalition, an organization of science, health, and legal professionals concerned about the impacts of noise on health, environment, learning, productivity, and quality of life in America.

Hearing loss is an occupational health hazard for musicians

by Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

It’s not surprising that hearing loss is an occupational health hazard for musicians, as highlighted in this recent report. After all, noise causes hearing loss. It doesn’t matter if the noise is from machinery in a factory, from a jet engine on the tarmac, or from loudspeakers at a rock concert. Whatever the source, the effect is the same.

And the type of music doesn’t matter, either, as noise-induced hearing loss is a problem for classical musicians, too.

The bottom line is this: hearing is precious. If hearing music is important to you–or hearing children or grandchildren speak, birds sing, whatever it is–protect your hearing.

How can you protect yourself? It’s easy. The auditory injury threshold is only 75-to-78 A-weighted decibels. That’s about the level at which ambient noise makes conversation difficult. If you are having a hard time having a conversation because of the ambient noise around you, it’s too loud. And if something sounds too loud, it IS too loud! Turn down the volume, leave the noisy place, always carry earplugs with you, and use them!

Dr. Daniel Fink is a leading noise activist based in the Los Angeles area. He serves on the board of the American Tinnitus Association, is the interim chair of Quiet Communities’s Health Advisory Council, and is the founding chair of The Quiet Coalition, an organization of science, health, and legal professionals concerned about the impacts of noise on health, environment, learning, productivity, and quality of life in America.

The unintended consequences of (failed) diplomacy

 

U.S. Embassy in Havana, Cuba (photo: U.S. State Department)

, McClatchy, reports on the mystery surrounding a sonic device used against U.S. and Canadian diplomats stationed in Cuba that caused hearing loss. Johnson writes that it is known that the “U.S. military deploys nonlethal noise and radiation weapons to incapacitate aggressors,” like a device that “can hit you with sound that will make you not be able to stand up” or that can “literally heat up water molecules under the skin’s surface.” And, of course, “[r]esearchers have also experimented with ultrasonic and infrasonic frequencies above and below the level at which humans can hear,” which, in some cases, “can cause physical discomfort at high intensity.” “They call them brown tones,” said Vahan Simidian, the CEO of HPV Technologies Inc., a firm that makes “long-range speakers that can send sound as far as two miles.” Why do they call them brown tones? Because they “can make you sick to your stomach.” And you can guess what happens next.

But the device used in Cuba was different. How? This device caused hearing loss in those it targeted. So why did Cuba purposefully deafen the diplomats? Vince Houghton, an intelligence historian employed by the International Spy Museum, speculates that it was a run-of-the-mill harassment campaign that got out of hand. Says Houghton:

The most likely scenario to me is this was used to harass, to annoy, to kind of goof off and be, like, ‘Ha ha! Let’s make them sick to their stomach. Let’s make them dizzy.’ And then, ‘Oh crap, it went too far…’

Houghton also believes that someone else was involved in developing this weapon, because the technology would be too “resource intensive” for “cash-strapped Cuba.”

The Cuban government responded by stating that it “has never permitted, nor will permit, that Cuban territory be used for any action against accredited diplomatic officials or their families, with no exception.” Meanwhile, The Washington Post reports that “investigators were looking into the possibilities that the incidents were carried out by a third country such as Russia, possibly operating without the knowledge of Cuba’s formal chain of command.”

The only good news from this twisted tale is that the unknown sonic device was probably intended only to harass, not disable. But when we read this piece our first thought was this: what if the resources marshalled to create this and the other appalling sound-based weapons were spent instead on educating the public on how to protect their hearing or distributing ear protection to vulnerable populations? That is, why do we accept that there is always money for weapons, but so little for public health?

Thanks to Bill Young, PhD, a noise reduction advocate from Stamford, Connecticut, for the link to The Washington Post article.

Treating hearing loss may help prevent dementia

By Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

A recent Canadian newspaper article discussing a report in The Lancet, the premier British medical journal, about preventing dementia.

The Lancet article highlights the importance of treating hearing loss for possibly preventing dementia. If you’re interested in dementia, know someone with dementia, or want to see what you can do to avoid developing dementia yourself, I recommend the Lancet article. It summarizes a large body of research in a readable fashion that should be accessible even to the lay reader.

There are many factors correlated with dementia risk, including genes, blood lipid levels, and diseases or conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and factors such as social isolation and cigarette smoking. The association between hearing loss and dementia is well-known and research is under way to see if treating hearing loss reduces the risk of dementia. Despite only correlations, and no clear understanding of how hearing loss may increase the risk, the Lancet authors think the scientific evidence is strong enough to recommend treatment of hearing loss as a possible prevention measure for dementia.

Of course, the only treatment for hearing loss is hearing aids, with cochlear implants reserved for the more severely impaired. We think that people with hearing loss should use hearing aids just to be able to hear others, whether hearing aids prevent dementia or not.

That said, hearing aids are a poor substitute for preserved natural hearing.

Perhaps the Lancet article should have gone a step further and highlighted the importance of preventing noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) to delay or avoid the onset of dementia. After all, we think it’s significantly better to prevent NIHL than to treat it, and that’s simple: avoid exposure to loud noise or wear ear protection when you cannot.

Dr. Daniel Fink is a leading noise activist based in the Los Angeles area. He serves on the board of the American Tinnitus Association, is the interim chair of Quiet Communities’s Health Advisory Council, and is the founding chair of The Quiet Coalition, an organization of science, health, and legal professionals concerned about the impacts of noise on health, environment, learning, productivity, and quality of life in America.

When “good news” is bad news

Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

This article in JAMA Otolaryngology about hearing loss in young people age 12-19 is getting press as good news. Researchers at the University of California (both the Los Angeles and San Francisco medical schools) analyzed audiometric test data on young Americans from the National Center for Health Statistics collected by National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES). The researchers concluded that the prevalence of hearing loss as measured by standard pure tone audiometry had not increased despite wider use of headphones and earbuds to listen to personal music players.

We don’t think this is good news at all.

First, the researchers state that the prevalence of hearing loss in 2009-2010 is 15.2%. Hearing only worsens with age, so based on the data, it appears that about one-sixth of young people are likely to have profound hearing loss in mid-to-late life. If they were losing their vision instead, would anyone think this was good news?

Second, the subjects hearing was assessed by standard pure-tone audiometry. These traditional tests do not detect hidden hearing loss, which indicates nerve damage (synaptopathy) caused by noise exposure. Only techniques that are now considered research techniques will detect this early auditory damage.

Third, the authors note that there was increased risk of hearing loss in racial/ethnic minorities and those from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Isn’t hearing health an issue for this group of Americans too?

Finally, the researchers discuss the many limitations of this type of data analysis, which means that no definite conclusions can be drawn from this study.

In the end, the article generated a lot of “good news” headlines and in doing so has done a disservice to all young people, because those headlines and the cursory reports that followed downplay the dangers of increased headphone and earbud use. This is particularly galling and irresponsible when one recognizes that noise-induced hearing loss is 100% preventable.

Dr. Daniel Fink is a leading noise activist based in the Los Angeles area. He serves on the board of the American Tinnitus Association, is the interim chair of Quiet Communities’s Health Advisory Council, and is the founding chair of The Quiet Coalition, an organization of science, health, and legal professionals concerned about the impacts of noise on health, environment, learning, productivity, and quality of life in America.

New Zealand researchers agree: hearing loss is probably a dementia risk factor

By Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

Many people don’t understand the process of medical and scientific research and how different hypotheses are developed and tested, using different methods in different human populations with animal studies when possible, until a consensus is reached. This was how researchers–including doctors, epidemiologists, researchers using animal models, and scientists doing basic research at the cellular, molecular, and genetic levels–figured out that cigarette smoke causes cancer and many other diseases, and how it does this. Despite the broad scientific and public health consensus, there are still skeptics, such as those at the conservative Heartland Institute, who say there is still doubt about whether smoking causes lung cancer. There is also a Flat Earth Society. Many Americans think that evolution is an unproven theory despite more than a century of research and strong evidence supporting evolution.

For the rest of us who believe in evidence-based science and evidence-based social and economic policies, our understanding of reality is always evolving based on the evidence. Sometimes something long thought to be true is found not to be correct after all. In medicine, one of the best examples may be ulcers in the stomach and small intestine, which for decades were thought to be caused by too much stomach acid but were found to be caused by bacteria. Australians Barry Marshall and J. Robin Warren won the Nobel Prize in 2005 for making this discovery. But most of the time an early hypothesis is confirmed by one study, and then another, and then by studies in animal models, and then by basic science research, until a broad consensus is reached.

This is what is happening with the hypothesis that hearing loss is associated, probably causally, with dementia. Dr. Frank Lin at Johns Hopkins University may be the best-known researcher in this field but other researchers in other countries are studying the same question. This report from New Zealand discusses what is being done there. And this report from the UK discusses research presented there.

It’s always good to have confirmation of research by different researchers using different techniques in different populations. Such confirmation helps validate initial findings in one population and helps move our understanding forward. We know that noise exposure causes hearing loss. If hearing loss is shown to be causally associated with the development of dementia, then preventing hearing loss should help to also prevent dementia. One theory is that the brain needs input to maintain function, and without auditory input and/or social connections, brain function declines. Another theory is that whatever degenerative process causes hearing loss also causes loss of mental function. Ongoing studies, providing hearing aids to those with hearing loss but not to others and then measuring intellectual function over time, may elucidate the cause-effect relationship. Regardless, we don’t need to wait for more evidence for the link. Preserving one’s hearing should be enough reason to avoid loud noise or to wear ear plugs if you can’t.

Dr. Daniel Fink is a leading noise activist based in the Los Angeles area. He serves on the board of the American Tinnitus Association, is the interim chair of Quiet Communities’s Health Advisory Council, and is the founding chair of The Quiet Coalition, an organization of science, health, and legal professionals concerned about the impacts of noise on health, environment, learning, productivity, and quality of life in America.