Tag Archive: noise

Here’s why Amazon won’t be delivering by drone anytime soon

Imagine a fleet of these flying over you. Always.

A NASA study has discovered that people find the buzz of drones more annoying than any other kind of vehicle. Not convinced? Well, this is what a swarm of 103 micro-drones sounds like (Caution: sound level is very loud at first, so lower volume. Drone sound starts at 1:52):

Mind you, those are micro-drones with a wingspan under 12 inches, not drones capable of delivering your new microwave or big box of unnecessary things.

Something that has become increasingly clear is that planners, engineers, regulators, and legislators need to think about noise and its consequences when they consider new ideas like drone delivery. Everything is connected, perhaps even more so as we live closer together, and the freedom of individuals, organizations, or commercial operations to do something must be balanced with the rights of those affected so that their lives are not disrupted by this new activity.

And what happens if we fail to consider the impacts of new technologies on others? Imagine walking down a city street with a loud, never-ending buzz hovering over you, as your fellow city denizens anxiously wait for the delivery of their new shiny thing. Jane Jacobs would spin in her grave. One hopes, at least, that your flying car will be sound insulated.

 

 

Why is New York City so noisy?

Winnie Hu, The New York Times, writes about the number one complaint in the city, noise, in, “New York Becomes the City That Never Shuts Up.” And we discover that the short answer to the question as to why the city is so noisy may be this: New York City needs more noise enforcers.

Hu interviews Richard T. McIntosh, a long-time resident of the Upper East Side who complains that he “has never heard such a racket outside his window.” Hu writes:

New York City has never been kind to human ears, from its screeching subways and honking taxis to wailing police sirens. But even at its loudest, there were always relatively tranquil pockets like the Upper East Side that offered some relief from the day-to-day cacophony of the big city. Those pockets are vanishing.

Construction is a huge factor in the increase in noise, but residents can’t escape outdoor noise by ducking into noisy city restaurants, gyms, and stores. And noise complaints have increased even after the city adopted an overhauled noise code in 2007. So what can be done? Hu writes that city councilman Ben Kallos, who represents the Upper East Side, “has made curbing noise one of his top priorities,” adding that “[h]e and Costa Constantinides, a councilman from Queens, are proposing legislation that targets some of the most grating sounds by requiring city noise inspectors to respond within two hours when possible to catch noisemakers in the act.”

Hu reports that while “the Police Department handles the vast majority of noise complaints, inspectors with the Department of Environmental Protection also investigate mechanical sources and environmental noise, including after-hours construction, air-conditioners and ventilation equipment, alarms and even barking dogs.” So how many inspectors does the Department of Environmental Protection have? Only 54 for a city of over 8 million residents. Apparently 8 more inspectors are going to be hired this year, bringing the total number of inspectors for all five boroughs to meager 62. And the response time is equally appalling. Hu reports that median response for police officers was 152 minutes, but the median response “for noise inspectors was four days in 2016.”

With construction noise before and after hours being the top complaint in every borough except for Staten Island, it’s unreasonable to expect noise violators to change their behavior when an inspector may show up four days after a noise complaint is filed. Indeed, a recent audit of New York City noise complaints by New York State Comptroller Thomas P. DiNapoli found that bars and nightclubs with “hundreds of complaints lodged against them faced little or no repercussions.”

City councilman Kallos believes that increasing the number of noise inspectors “would not only deter noise but also result in more violations and fines that would offset the cost of the legislation.” Kallos adds that “[i]t is time for the city to hire as many noise inspectors as it takes to respond to complaints when they happen.” We agree. We also agree with Dr. Arline Bronzaft, Chair of Noise Committee for Grow NYC, who notes that “with eight inspectors being hired soon, apparently we do not need legislation to hire inspectors, we just need the money for increased hires to be added to the budget NOW.”

If you live in New York City and want to see Kallos’ and Constantinides’ proposed legislation move forward, contact your city council person and ask him or her to sign on. While you’re at it, ask your councilperson what his or her answer is to New York City’s noise problem. Not sure who represents you in the city council? Click here to find out.  If you reach out to your councilperson’s office, please report back and tell us how they responded in the comments.

And Dr. Daniel Fink, Chair of The Quiet Coalition, weighs in with a letter to the editor of the New York Times.

Noise exposure directly damages rat brains. What does it do to humans?

Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

The evidence keeps mounting, almost on a daily basis, that noise is a health and public health hazard. Just last month, an article by researchers in Italy found that noise exposure directly damaged rat brains, producing changes in DNA, neurotransmitters, and even morphological changes. (For those who might be skeptical of this report, there is an existing body of research on the effects of noise on the brain. I don’t understand the details of the newer scientific studies, and I’m always cautious because studies have shown that positive results get reported more frequently than negative results, but taken together with the new report, there is a large amount of research pointing to a direct effect of noise on the brain.)

The Italian study exposed rates to noise of 100 decibels for 12 hours. That level exceeds exposure levels for most humans–certainly for a half-day period–but probably not cumulatively for many who attend clubs, rock concerts, or have noisy hobbies such as woodworking or motorcycle riding.

Humans and rats are genetically very similar–experts argue about whether the rat and human genomes are 97% or 99% similar, and about how to measure this similarity–but regardless of the exact percentage, we’re not talking about applying data from a roundworm to humans. The basic similarities are there in organ and cellular biochemistry, structure, and function. So it’s very likely that noise is also a direct toxin to the human brain, with similar genetic, neurotransmitter, and morphological changes, and most likely at lower noise exposure levels, too.

So what can we do? The solution is simple: avoid loud noise exposure, and wear hearing protection if you can’t.

And one last thing–encourage legislators, regulators, and public health authorities to do more to protect us from exposure to unnecessary noise.

Dr. Daniel Fink is a leading noise activist based in the Los Angeles area. He serves on the board of the American Tinnitus Association, is the interim chair of Quiet Communities’s Health Advisory Council, and is the founding chair of The Quiet Coalition, an organization of science, health, and legal professionals concerned about the impacts of noise on health, environment, learning, productivity, and quality of life in America.

“Baby Driver” highlights the problems of tinnitus

Photo credit: leadfoot licensed under CC BY 2.0

Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

I am not a moviegoer although my wife would say I am a movie critic, but I can’t comment on the new movie “Baby Driver” because I haven’t seen it. What I can say, based on movie reviews and this online article, is that the lead character has tinnitus from head trauma in a motor vehicle crash, and he plays music constantly to mask it.

Although there are many causes of tinnitus, the most common cause is noise, with a strong correlation between noise-induced hearing loss and tinnitus. Most people with tinnitus have at least some hearing loss, and half of people with hearing loss have tinnitus.

So, movie conventions aside, what’s the best way to avoid developing tinnitus? It’s simple–avoid loud noise and wear hearing protection if you can’t.

Dr. Daniel Fink is a leading noise activist based in the Los Angeles area. He serves on the board of the American Tinnitus Association, is the interim chair of Quiet Communities’s Health Advisory Council, and is the founding chair of The Quiet Coalition, an organization of science, health, and legal professionals concerned about the impacts of noise on health, environment, learning, productivity, and quality of life in America.

 

Why do humans suffer hearing loss from noise?

Image is in the public domain in the U.S.

By Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

Why do humans suffer hearing loss from noise? The cellular, sub-cellular, and even molecular reasons for how noise damages the auditory system are known, but why?

In a fascinating article in The Hearing Journal, evolutionary biologist William Shofner, PhD, notes that humans and our animal forebears evolved in a largely quiet environment. Exquisitely acute hearing was important for finding prey or avoiding threats, but resistance to noise damage in the auditory system conferred no selective advantage.

Our world only started getting noisy as cities evolved, and especially since the Industrial Revolution. That is, our ears haven’t evolved to handle the noise, hence the epidemic of noise-induced hearing loss reported by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Shofner’s last paragraph says it all:

Why didn’t evolution make the ear more noise-resistant? Again, evolution does not proceed with purpose. Simply stated, the human ear did not evolve under conditions of high sound levels. Any genetic mutation that might have led to a noise-resistant ear was likely not selected because it did not provide any benefit for survival and reproductive success in the pre-historic acoustic environment of early mammals. Natural selection is an exceedingly slow process that occurs over many generations, and the susceptibility of the human ear to noise-induced damage shows how natural selection is unable to keep up with rapid changes in an organism’s environment (Evol Applications. 2008). Technology has produced an acoustic environment that has changed much faster than the sluggish pace of human evolution. This evolutionary explanation of why the human ear is so susceptible to damage at highly intense noise levels provides a valuable perspective that audiologists can offer patients to prevent NIHL.

Dr. Daniel Fink is a leading noise activist based in the Los Angeles area. He serves on the board of the American Tinnitus Association, is the interim chair of Quiet Communities’s Health Advisory Council, and is the founding chair of The Quiet Coalition, an organization of science, health, and legal professionals concerned about the impacts of noise on health, environment, learning, productivity, and quality of life in America.

Quiet motorcycles? Tell your neighbor to buy one of these…

Photo credit: Jan Ainali licensed under CC BY 3.0

By David Sykes, Vice Chair, and Jamie Banks, Program Director, The Quiet Coalition

You may be thinking, “quiet motorcycles…how is that possible?” In fact, they already exist—but you might have trouble getting a Harley-riding neighbor to embrace them. For many bikers, noise equals power. But in the case of electric motorcycles there is reason to believe that quiet is powerful too!

Lithium ion battery-powered motorcycles are gaining favor–Consumer Reports is impressed with them. Furthermore, the Department of Defense’s Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has been working on camo-painted, “stealth” hybrid gas/electric off-road motorbikes.

Motorcycle noise is a serious problem—especially for people who suffer from auditory disorders like partial hearing loss, tinnitus, hyperacusis, and misophonia–for whom the racket from motorcycles can be excruciatingly painful. This may be bikers themselves or people who live in neighborhoods that are regularly exposed to this type of noise. Several years ago, the U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) convened a meeting about the problem of motorcycle noise and issued a report in 2014, though it seems to have fallen on deaf ears outside the NAE.

The noise has become such a problem in so many communities that even Harley-Davidson’s CEO has spoken out about Hog riders who remove their factory mufflers and install ‘straight pipes.’ Officially, the company doesn’t approve of owners tampering with the factory-installed mufflers, but after-market manufacturers are all-too-willing to meet consumer demand for more noise. The best news is that Harley-Davidson is developing an electric-powered motorcycle too.

Motorcycle noise may be a problem that regulation simply cannot fix. Given the current situation, it is unlikely the Environmental Protection Agency will be able to do anything about it. Instead, The Quiet Coalition (TQC) recommends framing motorcycle noise as a public health issue and encouraging a positive, technology-centered approach by businesses:

  • Become familiar with the large body of scientific literature indicating that loud noise is a public health problem. Authorities, including the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, publicize this information on their websites. Like tobacco smoke a generation ago, it will be necessary to engage public health officials before the motorcycle noise be addressed.
  • Urge individuals and groups that oppose motorcycle noise to encourage businesses to develop quieter, electric-powered alternatives. They are cheaper to operate (solar power is getting cheaper by the minute!) and much easier to maintain or repair (fewer moving parts!).

We believe these two steps are the best, most practical way to get action on this contentious issue and can actually lead to results. For example, The Quiet Coalition’s host, non-profit Quiet Communities, has been helping communities make the quiet transition away from fossil-fuel powered devices (namely landscape maintenance equipment) and towards advanced electric equipment and manual tools and emphasizing the compelling business model for users: the new lithium-ion-powered alternatives are cheaper to operate and maintain, they reduce air pollution, and they operate quietly. For some bikers, adopting technologically advanced, non-polluting, quiet alternatives may be appealing, especially if they have had health and hearing problems related to noisy bikes. It would be the start of a movement.

At TQC, we’re cautiously optimistic.

David Sykes chairs/co-chairs four national professional groups in acoustical science: The Acoustics Research Council, ANSI S12 WG44, The Rothschild Foundation Task Force on Acoustics, and the FGI Acoustics Working Group. He is also a board member of the American Tinnitus Association, co-founder of the Laboratory for Advanced Research in Acoustics (LARA) at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, lead author of “Sound & Vibration 2.0 (2012, Springer-Verlag), and a contributor to “Technology for a Quieter America” (2011, National Academy of Engineering). A graduate of the University of California/Berkeley with graduate degrees from Cornell University, he is a frequent organizer of and speaker at professional conferences in the U.S., Europe, Asia, and the Middle East.

Jamie Banks, PhD, MSc, is the Executive Director of Quiet Communities, Inc.. She is an environmentalist and health care scientist dedicated to promoting clean, healthy, quiet, and sustainable landscape maintenance, construction, and agricultural practices.

Humans are changing the underwater soundscapes

 

Photo credit: AWeith licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

of the world’s oceans. Catherine Rice, Nature World News, reports on how climate change is affecting the world’s oceans. Rice introduces us Kate Stafford, an oceanographer who studies the underwater soundscapes and migratory patterns and geographic variation of marine mammals. Using the Arctic Ocean as an example, Stafford discusses “how climate change is changing the sonic landscape of oceans” and how “human impact on climate could have unknown consequences for marine life which rely on listening to sounds in the ocean for survival.”

Long and short, as sea ice melts it “screeches and cracks and pops and groans, as it collides and rubs when temperature or currents or winds change.” So more melting means more noise. And as the sea ice melts, humans are encouraged “to use bigger ships more frequently” in parts of the Arctic Ocean that previously were not very navigable, which introduces even more loud noise into the soundscape. “Due to warmer waters and less sea ice, Stafford and [other] scientists are seeing other species of whales and mammals moving further north,” which could set up an ugly competition for food.

Rice concludes that “there are still many unanswered questions about the impact of human-induced climate change on the soundscape of the world’s oceans, but it is clear that they are getting noisier.”

Link via @QuietMark.

Can fireworks hurt babies’ ears?

Cat Bowen, Romper, looks at whether fireworks can hurt babies’ ears. Bowen, who is deaf, has a daughter who is hard of hearing, so she is particularly concerned about the impact of noisy fireworks, writing “that what little hearing we have, we want to protect at all costs.”

Bowen points to a Boys Town National Research Hospital report which states that “fireworks register at over 140 decibels of sound” and recommends safe distances for adults and children. Bowen writes that adults “need to be about 65 feet away from the fireworks to be considered safe,” but it’s more than double that for a child.

But what about babies? Bowen says that “it’s different with babies,” because there is no hearing protection gear made for infants under six months. So “[c]an fireworks hurt your baby’s ears?” “Absolutely,” says Bowen, who recommends that you limit your baby’s exposure, try using protective headphones, and “keep you and your baby as far from the fireworks as you can while still enjoying the view.”

Can noise cause fertility problems?

By Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

A report in the New Scientist indicates the answer is “maybe.” Researchers in Denmark conducted a study that found an exposure-response relationship between noise and difficulty getting pregnant. The researchers made their discovery by analysing data from the Danish National Birth Cohort, a project that ran from 1996 to 2002, and focusing on women who had tried to get pregnant during the project “if traffic noise data was available for where they lived.” The study was controlled for factors like poverty levels and nitrogen oxide pollution.

Earlier research had suggested that 80% of women who were actively trying to get pregnant usually did so within six menstrual cycles, but the research team found that “for every 10 decibels of extra traffic noise around a woman’s home, there was a 5 to 8 per cent increased chance of it taking six months or longer.”  The article notes that it “is unclear whether traffic noise may be affecting women or their partners.”

New Scientist quotes Rachel Smith of Imperial College London, who finds the link between traffic noise and health worrying. Says Smith, “[b]ecause traffic noise is common, even a small effect on health could feasibly have a large impact across a population.”

Just as the Danish study was released, a South Korean study was reported that focused on long-term exposure to a noisy environment and male infertility.  The study by researchers at Seoul National University, which ran for eight years from 2006-2013, looked “at male infertility by analyzing data from 206,492 men aged 20-59 and calculating the participants’ levels of noise exposure.”  3,293 of the participants had an infertility diagnosis.

The researchers “found that, after taking into account factors such as age, income, BMI and smoking, men who were exposed to noise over 55 dB at night (a level equivalent to a suburban street or an air conditioner and above the World Health Organization night noise level) had a significantly higher chance of being diagnosed as infertile.”  Dr. Jin-Young Min, the study’s co-author, noted that infertility was becoming a significant public health issue, adding that it was known noise affected male fertility in animals, but his study was the first to show the risk of environmental noise on male infertility in humans.

Both studies’ findings have to be replicated in other countries and by other researchers, but the data keep mounting and show that environmental noise pollution is a ubiquitous, pervasive, and dangerous health problem.

Dr. Daniel Fink is a leading noise activist based in the Los Angeles area. He serves on the board of the American Tinnitus Association, is the interim chair of Quiet Communities’s Health Advisory Council, and is the founding chair of The Quiet Coalition, an organization of science, health, and legal professionals concerned about the impacts of noise on health, environment, learning, productivity, and quality of life in America.

 

Enjoying the sounds of nature

 

Photo credit: Bruce Tremper licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

Josh Wennergreen, a recent graduate from the University of Utah’s Environmental Humanities Graduate Program, pens an ode to the joys of nature. Wennergreen is an inveterate hiker who spends weekends hiking and camping in nearby canyons and national parks.  He asks us to “[t]hink of all the human-made noise we hear in a single day: car engines, helicopters, computer pings, phone chirps, pounding construction, cash drawers closing,” lamenting that “It’s endless.”

And he examines the effect of all that noise on the human body, finding, unsurprisingly, that it’s not good for human health. Wennergreen cites a German study of one million people who live near airports that found a whole host of horribles that befalls those “plagued by background noise (jet engines, leaf blowers, cars)….[like] an increased risk of kidney failure, cardiovascular diseases, and dementia compared to people who lived in quitter settings.”

His advice is simple. “Never has it been more vital to re-charge in the mountains, to hear the wild soundscape,” he writes, adding that “[t]his is not some new-age plea, this is an urgent public health crisis.”

So find some time to get away to the mountains or the nearest national park. Just make sure to follow Wennergreen’s advice to “not be the loudest thing around” as you enjoy nature, because “[j]ust as a candy wrapper clinging to branches of a trail-side oak is litter on the natural landscape, loud and boisterous behavior is litter on the natural soundscape.”