Tag Archive: Dr. Arline Bronzaft

Noise affects children’s learning

by Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

This wonderful piece by noise pioneer Arline Bronzaft, PhD, one of The Quiet Coalition’s founders, summarizes her work and the work of others on how noise affects children’s learning.

Noise interferes with human function by disturbing concentration and interfering with communication. The EPA determined that “library quiet”– that is, a 45 dBA ambient noise level–is necessary to allow 100% speech intelligibility (see text at Figure D-1). Not surprisingly, when transportation noise intrudes into the classroom, children can’t hear what the teacher says, and this interferes with their learning.

Dr. Bronzaft’s article includes links to her groundbreaking work.

The Acoustical Society of America and the American National Standards Institute developed a standard for classroom acoustics, and more information is available at this link.

Dr. Daniel Fink is a leading noise activist based in the Los Angeles area. He is the founding chair of The Quiet Coalition, an organization of science, health, and legal professionals concerned about the impacts of noise on health, environment, learning, productivity, and quality of life in America. Dr Fink also is the interim chair of Quiet Communities’ Health Advisory Council, and he served on the board of the American Tinnitus Association from 2015-2018.

NYU celebrates International Noise Awareness Day

by David M. Sykes, Vice Chair, The Quiet Coalition

April 25 marked the twenty-fourth annual International Noise Awareness Day—now a global event originating in New York City in the mid-1990s that has gained significant momentum.

On April 24, New York University’s Bobst Library, facing Washington Square Park in NYC, was the locus of this year’s INAD festivities. Superbly organized by Quiet Coalition co-founders Dr. Antonella Radicchi and Dr. Arline Bronzaft along with NYU researcher and technologist Prof. Tae Hong Park, the program featured six speakers, a “sound-walk,” and a discussion group.

Congratulations to the organizers for a superbly organized event and a beautiful spring day in NYC!

In addition to serving as vice chair of the The Quiet Coalition, David Sykes chairs several professional organizations in acoustical science: The Acoustics Research Council, American National Standards Institute Committee S12, Workgroup 44, The Rothschild Foundation Task Force on Acoustics, and the FGI Acoustics Working Group—a partner of the American Hospital Association. He is the lead author of “Sound & Vibration 2.0 (2012, Springer-Verlag), a contributor to the National Academy of Engineering report “Technology for a Quieter America,” and to the US-GSA guidance “Sound Matters”, and co-founded the Laboratory for Advanced Research in Acoustics (LARA) at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. He recently retired from the board of directors of the American Tinnitus Association. A graduate of the University of California/Berkeley with graduate degrees from Cornell University, he is a frequent organizer of and speaker at professional conferences in the U.S., Europe, Asia, and the Middle East.

NYC observes International Noise Awareness Day

Photo by Nicholas Santasier from Pexels

by Jeanine Botta, MPH, Co-founder, The Quiet Coalition

In 1996, the League for the Hard of Hearing, now the Center for Hearing and Communication, established the first Noise Awareness Day in New York City. Eventually Noise Awareness Day became International Noise Awareness Day, a day to raise global awareness about the effects of environmental noise on human health and well-being. Today that concern extends to the harms of human generated noise on wildlife.

This year, the 24th INAD will be observed around the world on April 24th. Members and friends of The Quiet Coalition will participate in multiple events that day.  One of these is Noise, Quietness, and the Healthy City, a day-long workshop at New York University featuring speakers, discussions, hearing screenings, and a sound walk. Registration is required, and you can register for each event or the entire day.

On April 20th, two members of The Quiet Coalition will lead an interactive program in observance of INAD at the Clarendon Library in East Flatbush, Brooklyn to introduce mobile phone apps as a means of contributing to “citizen science” – a way to empower people to address community noise, and to identify and preserve quiet places. Click here for to download the flyer.

And also on April 24th, volunteers from the Acoustical Society of America will hold a Science of Sound educational program at the Bedford Library in Bedford-Stuyvesant, Brooklyn. Registration is not required, but is recommended. Click here for more information about this program.

Learn more about INAD events worldwide at the Center for Hearing and Communication and the Acoustical Society of America websites. More comprehensive historical information about INAD can be found in this Acoustics Today article.

Jeanine Botta serves on the Board of Directors of the Right to Quiet Society for Soundscape Awareness and Protection. She also serves on the International Noise Awareness Day committee of the Technical Committee on Noise within the Acoustical Society of America. Jeanine has worked as a patient educator since 2008, and has a background in public health research administration. She also maintains the Green Car Integrity blog, a meditation on cars, tech, and noise. 

 

Noise pioneer introduces new noise and sound curriculum

by Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

In this wonderful article, to appear in a special edition of the international journal Cities & Health, The Quiet Coalition’s Arline Bronzaft, PhD, reviews her 40 years of pioneering research into the effects of noise on people. Her initial work showed that transit noise affects children’s learning.

Unlike many researchers, who appear content just to see their work published, Dr. Bronzaft realized that she had a responsibility to use what she had demonstrated to try to make the world a quieter place.

And she’s still doing that today. She has assisted the New York City Department of Environmental Protection’s Education Division with the development of its noise curriculum, a Sound and Noise Module.

Dr. Daniel Fink is a leading noise activist based in the Los Angeles area. He is the founding chair of The Quiet Coalition, an organization of science, health, and legal professionals concerned about the impacts of noise on health, environment, learning, productivity, and quality of life in America. Dr Fink also is the interim chair of Quiet Communities’ Health Advisory Council, and he served on the board of the American Tinnitus Association from 2015-2018.

San Francisco’s BART has been made quieter

Photo credit: Luis Villa del Campo licensed under CC BY 2.0

by Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

This article by Dianne de Guzman, SFgate.com, reports that the San Francisco area’s Bay Area Rapid Transit system trains have been made quieter after repairs to track and wheels. More importantly, BART has ordered 775 new cars to be delivered in 2022, and these cars have specifically been designed to be quieter.

I have hyperacusis.  Sounds that don’t bother others are uncomfortable or even painful to me. I rode BART from the airport to downtown on a recent trip to San Francisco. It was certainly quieter than the subways in New York and London, but I still put on my noise-cancelling headphones (which were in my backpack for the flight up to SFO) because it was loud enough to be uncomfortable for me. I didn’t measure the sound pressure level, but I would estimate it to be 80-85 decibels, and that’s loud enough to cause hearing loss.

Subway noise is a problem in many cities, New York and London among them. But as New York City’s newest subway line and BART show, public rail transit can be made quieter. As The Quiet Coalition’s Arline Bronzaft, PhD, wrote: if there’s a will to make subways quieter, there’s certainly a way. This isn’t rocket science, simply bread-and-butter acoustic engineering.

And that’s perhaps the most important point. There seems to be a growing awareness that urban noise is a problem, and that it’s actually relatively easy and not all that expensive to make cities quieter.

Because if the subway sounds too loud, it IS too loud.

Dr. Daniel Fink is a leading noise activist based in the Los Angeles area. He is the founding chair of The Quiet Coalition, an organization of science, health, and legal professionals concerned about the impacts of noise on health, environment, learning, productivity, and quality of life in America. Dr Fink also is the interim chair of Quiet Communities’ Health Advisory Council, and he served on the board of the American Tinnitus Association from 2015-2018.

Toronto to tackle transportation noise

Photo credit: GTD Aquitaine, who has released this photo into the public domain.

by Arline L. Bronzaft, Ph.D., Board of Directors, GrowNYC, and Co-founder, The Quiet Coalition

That the noise from the commuter trains, passing the homes of David Bosworth and his neighbors living in Upper Toronto, Canada, intrudes on their household conversations as well as their sleep is readily understood by the millions of residents whose household activities and sleep are disrupted daily by the noise from overhead planes, nearby trains, and passing road traffic. Mr. Bosworth, like the millions of others similarly impacted by transportation noise, feels that the noise issue has not been addressed as a serious pollutant. This, despite the abundant literature linking noise impacts to cardiovascular and sleep disorders, learning disruptions, and diminished quality of life. Furthermore, Mr. Bosworth fears that the expansion of the train route near his home will bring even more noise disruptions.

In the Globe and Mail article linked above, Sasha Zeidler writes that the Toronto regional transportation agency Metrolinx is looking to lessen the noise to which residents will be exposed in the future even as it plans to expand the transit line. Toronto, says Zeidler, is a city aware of the effects of noise on its residents and it “is aiming to reduce noise pollution from traffic, transit and other infrastructure projects.”

I, for one, will look to see whether Toronto successfully carries out its mission to reduce noise pollution.

It is interesting to note that in this article, there are references to the World Health Organization guidelines, a study published in a German academic article linking heart attacks to traffic and rail noise, mapping of noise in Florence, Italy and other Canadian noise studies but no references to research in the country south of Canada—the U.S. While the U.S. has not taken the lead in addressing noise pollution, I do not want readers to think that Americans have been lax with respect to noise research and activism. I suggest readers search back on this site for American noise studies and the Americans who are actively working to reduce noise in our society.

Dr. Arline Bronzaft is a researcher, writer, and consultant on the adverse effects of noise on mental and physical health. She is co-author of “Why Noise Matters,” author of “Listen to the Raindrops” (children’s book illustrated by Steven Parton), and has written extensively about noise in books, encyclopedias, academic journals, and the popular press.  In addition, she is a Professor Emerita of the City University of New York and Board member of GrowNYC.

Is noise pollution making you fat?

This image is in the public domain in the U.S.

by Arline L. Bronzaft, Ph.D., Board of Directors, GrowNYC, and Co-founder, The Quiet Coalition

The discussion that stress may be linked to obesity has gone on for many years but an internet search of research linking stress to obesity will reveal that stress can indeed increase weight. One could now ask the question whether continuous noise intrusions from railways, roads, and overhead aircraft could be associated with obesity. The answer to this question appears to be “yes” with regard to road noise, “less so” with rail noise and “no” for aircraft noise in the research paper cited in this Environment International article.

While the authors of the paper cited above believe that additional research needs to be conducted, including effects of aircraft noise, to strengthen the data supporting the relationship between noise and obesity, they stress that with obesity being a major public issue worldwide, the existing data suggest that noise needs to be seriously considered as a contributing factor. They also point out that: “obesity could represent one pathway through which transportation noise impacts cardiovascular disease,” recognizing that studies have linked transportation noise to cardiovascular ailments.

Dr. Arline Bronzaft is a researcher, writer, and consultant on the adverse effects of noise on mental and physical health. She is co-author of “Why Noise Matters,” author of “Listen to the Raindrops” (children’s book illustrated by Steven Parton), and has written extensively about noise in books, encyclopedias, academic journals, and the popular press.  In addition, she is a Professor Emerita of the City University of New York and Board member of GrowNYC.

Sounds that soothe in life and near death

by Arline L. Bronzaft, Ph.D., Board of Directors, GrowNYC, and Co-founder, The Quiet Coalition

My research and writings have focused on the effects of noise on mental and physical health. If we are to lessen the adverse impacts of noise on hearing and well-being it would be wise to start by educating children to the dangers of noise. But what about the wonderful sounds around us that we want children to tune into? Shouldn’t we also teach children about the “good” sounds as well as the “bad ones,” named noises?

It was with these thoughts in mind that my children’s book “Listen to the Raindrops” was written and beautifully illustrated by Steven Parton. The title draws children to sounds that are pleasant, as do the lines within the book. But the book also describes the bad sounds that might hurt the delicate ear. The book ends by asking moms, dads, girls, and boys to join together to stop the noise, so that we can forever hear the raindrops fall.

Environmental sounds such as birds singing, breezes, and waves hitting the shore are sounds that individuals seek out to feel relaxed. Quiet areas within cities are being identified by researchers such as Dr. Antonella Radicchi, who believe such areas will be sought out and protected by people who look to these “urban oases” of quiet so that they can listen to the natural sounds they enjoy to hear. She also conducts soundwalks through these areas.

Thus, it was my background in trying to protect our natural sounds and to lessen the din in our environment that drew me to the New York Times piece “In Life’s Last Moments, Open the Window.” Rachel Clarke, a British physician, wrote the article to describe how much comfort patients close to the end of life get from the “sheer vitality” of nature. Dr. Clarke learned that a blackbird’s song can’t stop disease but it can offer comfort. In life I long knew that natural sounds bring us contentment, but after reading this article I now know that near death we seek the peace these sounds bring to us.

But just as we are fighting the intrusion of noises that are robbing us of our ability to tune into natural sounds, I fear that these same noises will rob us of the comfort of these natural sounds as we lay dying. How many urban hospitals can open up windows to allow the gentle breezes and the chirping birds to be heard? I would hope that Dr. Clarke’s article reaches the attention of architects and designers who may be able to bring small gardens to urban hospitals and to public officials who will use their offices to lessen overall outdoor noises so that these will not drown out the natural sounds so desired by those hoping to open a window as they lie in bed facing the end of life.

Dr. Arline Bronzaft is a researcher, writer, and consultant on the adverse effects of noise on mental and physical health. She is co-author of “Why Noise Matters,” author of “Listen to the Raindrops” (children’s book illustrated by Steven Parton), and has written extensively about noise in books, encyclopedias, academic journals, and the popular press.  In addition, she is a Professor Emerita of the City University of New York and Board member of GrowNYC.

Wind turbines in 2018

by Arline L. Bronzaft, Ph.D., Board of Directors, GrowNYC, and Co-founder, The Quiet Coalition

In October 1986, I presented a keynote address to the Community Noise Conference held in Toowoomba, co-sponsored by the Queensland Division of Noise Abatement and Air Pollution and the Australian Acoustical Society. The title of my talk was “Health Hazards of Noise.” In my talk, I spoke of noise as not just an urban phenomenon and gave examples of how residents in quieter communities can find themselves exposed to intrusive noises. One example I gave was the following:

Imagine how surprised a suburban couple were to wake up one morning to the sound of a windmill erected in the neighbor’s backyard.

In the 1980s we spoke of windmills, not wind turbines. Yet, in 1981, I actually had a court case involving a backyard windmill that was impacting on the health and well-being of a nearby neighbor. The judge in this case acknowledged the discomfort brought about by the windmill’s noise.

Now thirty years after my talk in Australia and after the court case cited above, we have a finding by an Australian Council regarding a wind farm stating that “noise is audible frequently within individual residences and this noise is adversely impacting on the personal comfort and wellbeing of individuals.” In several U.S. cases, courts have asked wind power operators to buy out noise-affected neighbors. A majority of the wind turbine cases argued in Australia, New Zealand, the U.S., Europe, and Canada, however, have found that wind turbine noise would not affect health adversely. This, despite the fact that there are published papers noting that the sounds produced by wind turbines are not being assessed properly and a number of studies reporting a link between wind turbine noise and potential health impacts.

Considering the growth of evidence suggesting the harmful impacts of wind turbine sounds on health, I believe that we need to continue to examine this link before we forge ahead in siting industrial wind turbines. And we also must continue to monitor the legal challenges to wind turbine impacts internationally.

Dr. Arline Bronzaft is a researcher, writer, and consultant on the adverse effects of noise on mental and physical health. She is co-author of “Why Noise Matters,” author of “Listen to the Raindrops” (children’s book illustrated by Steven Parton), and has written extensively about noise in books, encyclopedias, academic journals, and the popular press.  In addition, she is a Professor Emerita of the City University of New York and Board member of GrowNYC.

Silence, please! Is it really possible to mute the world?

Photo credit: Kat Jayne from Pexels

by Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

In a word, no. But this fascinating essay mentions a 1957 science fiction story by Arthur C. Clarke predicting a machine that does that, and now scientists are working on actualizing that idea.

We’ll see how successful they are, and of course how much the new technology costs. But it seems to me that it’s much simpler to use existing technologies, or even just to enforce existing noise ordinances, than to try to develop a whole new technology. Acoustic technology is highly developed. Reduce noise at the source by design and material choices, and if that can’t be done, insulate, isolate, reflect, or contain the sound. And laws to reduce harmful and unwanted noise have long existed, including building codes, zoning codes, federal laws about vehicle mufflers, local laws about horn use, etc.

As noise pioneer Arline Bronzaft PhD wrote many years ago, it’s a matter of will, not of way, to make the world a quieter and more enjoyable place for all.

I sent these remarks to Dr. Bronzaft as a courtesy, to make sure she wanted to be quoted and to make sure I got it right. She replied with a wonderful insight: people don’t want silence, they want quiet so they can hear others talk, hear the raindrops fall, hear birds singing.

Of course, she’s right!

Dr. Daniel Fink is a leading noise activist based in the Los Angeles area. He is the founding chair of The Quiet Coalition, an organization of science, health, and legal professionals concerned about the impacts of noise on health, environment, learning, productivity, and quality of life in America. Dr Fink also is the interim chair of Quiet Communities’ Health Advisory Council, and he served on the board of the American Tinnitus Association from 2015-2018.